This complex issue requires a political commitment and collaboration between all stakeholders across borders to combat it effectively. Last year, ASEAN leaders expressed their commitment, as reflected in the ASEAN Leaders’ Statement on Cybersecurity Cooperation, adopted at the 32nd ASEAN Summit in Singapore. These knowledge-sharing conferences are one of many steps towards bridging the public and private sectors in cybersecurity, and laying a firm foundation for public – private partnership to combat cybersecurity threats. In January 2019, the Ministry of Commerce of Thailand and the ASEAN Secretariat organized the “Special Session on 4IR.” In March 2019, the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society hosted the ASEAN Digital Ministers’ Retreat. More recently, in May 2019, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, together with the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society of Thailand, co-hosted the “International Conference on Cybersecurity: Implications on Peace and Security in the ASEAN Region.” At this conference, H.E.